Review Sheet Test 1: [Return to Syllabus]

Review Sheet for Test 1, January 23, 2007

Reading from text book: pages 56-61, 80-92, 198-224

Light and Matter

  • Different forms of Light (EM Radiation)
    Know the different forms in the order of energy. How does this relate to their wavelength and frequency? What kinds of light can pass through our Earth's atmosphere? What are these 'regions of passage' called?

  • Doppler Effect
    How does it happen? What is the necessary orientation between 'source' and 'receiver' to see this effect? What can it be used to measure? Give examples or draw a diagram.

  • Black Body Radiation
    What emits BB radiation? How does the amount of light and color compare with Temperature? What are these radiation laws called? What is absolute Zero (in Kelvin Degrees) and what does it define in matter? Why does all 'known' matter emit BB Radiation?

  • Atomic and Emission Lines
    What is the structure of an atom? What defines an element? What is the ground state? What is needed to make an electron move UP to a higher orbital? What is released when an electron moves to an inner orbit? Why is line emission from different atoms unique?

  • Kirchoff's Laws
    List the three kinds of spectra and give examples of each. What kind of spectrum does the Sun produce? What are the dark bands seen in the spectrum of the Sun? What are the lines called that are created in a 'neon' light?

    The Sun

  • Basic Properties of the Sun
    How much bigger is the Sun than Earth? What is its average density compared to water? How dense is the core? What is the surface temperature? What is the core Temperature? Besides radiation, how else do we collect information about the sun?

  • The Solar Atmosphere
    Name the three main parts of the solar atmosphere? Where do they lie in relation to each other? In what wavelengths can we see them? Why? What are granules, sunspots and spicules? How best can we see them?

  • Solar Magnetic Phenomenon
    What is Differential Rotation? Explain how this leads to the Solar Cycle. How long is the Solar Cycle? Describe Prominences, Sun Spots, Flares, and Coronal Holes in the context of the Magnetic Solar Cycle. What causes an Aurora seen on Earth?

  • The Solar Interior
    Name the three interior regions of the Sun and describe their unique qualities. What is hydrostatic equilibrium and how is this displayed in the Sun? How do we know about the interior of the Sun (depth of zones, etc)? How do we know hydrogen fusion into Helium is (nearly) the main source of energy in the Sun?

    Characterizing Stars

  • Parallax
    Why is distance so important in Astronomy? What is Parallax and how can it help you find stellar distances? Why didn't the Greeks see it? Does the parallax getter larger or smaller as a star moves further away?

  • Magnitude Scale
    What is the history of the Magnitude scale? What is the magnitude of a star that is brighter than a first magnitude star? What is the difference between Apparent and Absolute magnitude? Which is intrinsic to the star? If most stars are further than 10 pc, are their Absolute magnitudes brighter or dimmer than their apparent magnitude?

  • Inverse Square Law
    If star A and B look to be the same brightness in the sky, but Star A is actually 2 times further away than star B, is Star A intrinsically Brighter or Dimmer than Star B? By how much?

  • The Temperatures of Stars
    What are two ways one can derive the temperature of a star? What is the order of the spectral types with respect to temperature and why are they not in alphabetical order? Why are certain atomic transitions seen in the spectra of some stars and not others?

    ESSAY QUESTIONS The 5 point essay question will be one of the following:

    1) What is meant by a Black Body emitter? Why do all known objects emit such radiation? What is absolute zero? Name and describe the two radiation laws and their relationship to temperature of an object.

    2) Explain why the Sun develops increasing numbers of active regions with time, peaking every 11 years. Draw an active region on the sun, labeling the Sunspots, prominences and the location of the magnetic field in the diagram.

    3) What is the 'Solar Neutrino Problem'? Explain what experiments were detecting versus theoretical calculations and why this was a problem. Describe the new physics discovered and how this solved the problem.