This chapter is devoted to the integrability of discrete systems and their relation to the theory of Yang–Baxter (YB) maps. Lax pairs play a significant role in the integrability of discrete systems. We introduce the notion of Lax pair by considering the well-celebrated doubly-infinite Toda lattice. In particular, we present solution of the Cauchy initial value problem via the method of the inverse scattering transform, provide a review of scattering theory of Jacobi matrices, and give the Riemann–Hilbert formulation of the inverse scattering transform. On the other hand, the Lax–Darboux scheme constitutes an important tool in the theory of integrable systems, as it relates several concepts of integrability. We explain the role of Darboux and Bäcklund transformations in the theory of integrable systems, and we show how they can be used to construct discrete integrable systems via the Lax–Darboux scheme. Moreover, we give an introduction to the theory of Yang–Baxter maps and we show its relation to discrete integrable systems. Finally, we demonstrate the construction of Yang–Baxter maps via Darboux transformations, using the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as illustrative example.